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1928 MAG Olympics Perfect 10

1928: A Costly Math Error during the Men’s Competition at the Amsterdam Olympics

The men’s competition at the 1928 Olympics was a close battle between Czechoslovakia and Switzerland. It came down to the very last event, vault, on which Czechoslovak gymnast Šupčík fell and on which Swiss gymnast Eugen Mack received a perfect score for his compulsory routine.

Modern gymnastics fans might be surprised to know that one of the countries performed to music. During its ensemble floor routine, Yugoslavia told the history of its nation through music and movement. (Technically, it wasn’t Yugoslavia at the time but rather the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes or SHS for short.)

Of course, there was a fair share of judging drama. It’s gymnastics.

Unfortunately, there were some organizational problems, too. Due to a mathematical error, the wrong person received the bronze medal on rings.

Swiss gymnast Georges Miez (1904-1999) at the 1928 Summer Olympics, held at the Olympisch Stadion (Olympic Stadium) in Amsterdam, Netherlands, August 1928. Miez won gold in the Men’s artistic individual all-around, Men’s artistic team all-around, Men’s horizontal bar, and won silver in the Men’s pommel horse. (Photo by Bob Thomas/Popperfoto/Getty Images)

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Judging Assignments

Pommel horse, compulsories: Blom, Holland, Commandant Levälahti, Finland, Hengtes, Luxembourg;

Pommel horse, optionals: Klein, France, Thorin, Switzerland, Boiti, Italy;

Rings, compulsories: Matthenos, Great Britain, Smertnik, S. H. S., Füszfás, Hungary;

Rings, optionals: Müller, Czechoslovakia, Pauzer, America, de Wilde, Holland;

Horizontal bar, compulsories: Teivalaa, Finland, Thommes, Luxembourg, Piesvaux, France;

Horizontal bar, optionals: Lerch, Swiss, Genesis, Italy, Spencer, Great Britain;

Parallel bars, compulsories: Vidmar, S. H. S., Füszfás, Hungary, Bílek, Czechoslovakia;

Parallel bars, optionals: Aszy, America, Reilingh, Holland, Commandant Eiiri, Finland;

Vault, side horse: Guaino, Luxembourg, Pinvane, France, Vaterlans, Switzerland;

Vault, long horse: Rouzoni, Italy, Mears, Great Britain, Šumi, S. H. S.;

Ensemble routines: Füszfas, Hungarian and Czechoslovak Havel, for individual execution; American Trieb and Dutchman Reilingh for composition and difficulty, Finnish Commandant Levälahti for the overall performance.

Source: Sokol, 1928, Number 11

TCH: Czechoslovakia had problems with these assignments.

This division of judges was unfavorable to us because, where our judge could paralyze our unfavorable judgments, we were missing a judge on both horse events, for example, which was also evident.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Toto rozdělení soudců bylo našim nepříznivé, neboť tam, kde mohl náš soudce paralysovati nám nepříznivé soudcování, tam náš soudce scházel jako na příklad na obou koních, což se také ukázalo.

TCH: In fact, Czechoslovakia had a problem with the oversight committee because there weren’t any Slavs on it.

The judges’ meeting on Monday, August 6, was in favor of the Swiss and against us. The management of the competition was placed in the hands of Mr. Colonel Huguenin, Swiss, a representative of an organization taking part in international competitions for the second time. The Swiss deftly avoided Lyon because it was not according to their chances. Previously, the chairman was always elected according to age, which would have been Mr. Piesvaux, a Frenchman. Even the whole board was without a single Slav; the vice-president was the Italian Marco Capelli; the technical director, the Dutch M. J. H. F. Sommer; and the secretary M. Joh. Dalbaune, Frenchman.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Již schůze soudců v pondělí dne 6. srpna vyzněla ve prospěch Švýcarů a proti nám. Vedení závodů tu vloženo do rukou p. pluk. Huguenina, Švýcara, tedy zástupce organisace, jež teprve po druhé se zúčastňuje mezinárodních závodů. Švýcaři se Lyonu obratně vyhnuli, neboť nebyl podle jejich šancí. Dříve býval vždy volen předseda dle stáří, jímž by byl býval p. Pieswaux, Francouz. I celé představenstvo bylo bez jediného Slovana; místopředsedou byl Ital Marco Capelli, technickým ředitelem Holanďan M. J. H. F. Sommer a tajemníkem M. Joh. Dalbaune, Francouz.

Note: The 1926 World Championships (called the International Tournament at the time) were held in Lyon.


Drawing of Lots

TCH: The Czechoslovak team was happy with their draw.

The only circumstance that was favorable to us was the drawing of the order of the competing teams, which was as follows: 1. The Netherlands, 2. Finland, 3. Luxembourg, 4. France, 5. Switzerland, 6. Italy, 7. Great Britain, 8. S.H.S, 9. Hungarians, 10. Czechoslovakia, 11. United States of America. In this order, we calculated that the opinion of the judges by judging our predecessors would already be stable, and our sportspeople, some of the best, would be judged fairly. How wrong we were both in the order change and the whole event! 

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Jediná okolnost, jež nám byla příznivá, bylo vylosování pořadí závodních družstev, které bylo následující: 1. Holandsko, 2. Finsko, 3. Lucemburk, 4. Francie, 5.Švýcary, 6. Italie, 7. Anglie, 8. S. H. S, 9. Maďaři, 10. Československo, 11. Spojené Státy severoamerické. Při tomto pořadí jsme počítali, že názor soudců posuzováním našich předchůdců bude již ustálen a naši borci, jedni z nejlepších, budou posuzování spravedlivě. Jak jsme se mýlili i v neměnitelnosti pořadí i v celém soudcování!

Note: Remember this because the competition order changed on the final day.


Day 1

Pommel Horse Results

GymnastCountryComp.Opt.Total
1. HänggiSUI29.5029.7559.25
2. MiezSUI28.5029.2557.75
3. SavolainenFIN28.7527.7556.50
4. SteinemannSUI27.7528.2556.00
5. GüttingerSUI28.2527.5055.75
6. LerouxFRA27.2527.5054.75
Source: The Official Report for the 9th Olympiad

Rings Results

These are the results in the Official Report:

GymnastCountryComp.Opt.Total
1. ŠtukeljYUG29.0028.7557.75
2. VáchaTCH28.0029.5057.50
3. LöfflerTCH27.2528.2556.50*
4. NeriITA28.2527.7556.00
5. NybergFIN26.7528.2555.00
6. ŠupčíkTCH26.0028.7554.75

*But, but, but…

The Podium Mistake

The Official Report lists Löffler as the third-place finisher, but he should have finished fourth behind Neri.

Löffler’s compulsory routine (27.25) and optional routine (28.25) totaled 55.50 points — not 56.50 points as the Official Report notes.

He received 8.75, 9.25, 9.25 for his compulsories, and 10, 9.0, and 9.25 for his optional routine.

Here’s what Štukelj wrote the following in his book Mojih sedem svetovnih tekmovanj:

In the Official Report of the International Gymnastics Federation on this competition, the Czech gymnast Löffler was named third with a score of 56.50, which would have earned him an Olympic bronze medal.

However, according to the Italian champion Romeo Neri, this ranking is wrong and even more tragic if Löffler actually received the bronze medal during the awards ceremony instead of Neri, whom the Report puts in fourth place with a score of 56.

The opposite is true.

Since I do not know how the Olympic medals were awarded and I also do not remember with certainty whether the flag next to our national flag was Czech or Italian when it was raised at the stadium at the announcement of the winners, it is possible that Neri or the Italian coaches did not even notice the errors, which would, of course, be quite possible in the case of insufficient information and reporting at the time.

Table B shows that he received scores:

Loeffler: Fr. 27.25 + p. 28.25 = 55.50

Neri: Fr. 28.25 + p. 27.75 = 56.00

A fatal mistake if Neri did not receive an Olympic medal!

V uradnem poročilu Mednarodne telovadne zveze o tem tekmovanju je imenovan na tretjem mestu v končnem uspehu češki telovadec Loeffler z oceno 56.50, s čimer bi mu bila pripadla bronasta olimpijska kolajna.

Ta uvrstitev pa je glede na italijanskega prvaka Romea Nerija napačna in tudi v toliko tragična, če je pri podeljevanju kolajn dejansko prejel bronasto kolajno Loeffler namesto Nerija, katerga poročilo post avlja na četrto mesto z oceno 56.

Res pa je prav obratno.

Ker ne vem, kako so bile podeljene olimpijske kolajne in se tudi ne spominjam z gotovostjo, ali je bila og baku naše državne zastave ceška al itlaijanska, ko so jo potegnili na stadionu ob napovedi zmagovalcev, bi bilo mogoče, da Neri oziroma italijanski vodniki te zmote niso niti opazili, kar bi bilo seveda čisto mogoče pri takratnem nezadostnem obveščanju in javljanju ocen.

Iz tabele B razberemo , da je prejel ocene

Loeffler: o. 27.25 + p. 28.25 = 55.50
Neri: o. 28.25 + p. 27.75 = 56.00

Usodna napaka, če Neri ni prejel olimpijske kolajne!

Štukelj goes on to state:

There would probably be no such mistakes today in the age of mechanical computing, but computers didn’t exist then.

Danes v dobi mehanskega računanja bi verjetno takšnih pomot ne bilo, takrat pa računalnikov še niso poznali.

Note: While Štukelj couldn’t recall if Löffler or Neri received the bronze medal, third place was awarded to Löffler. Here’s how the Yugoslav federation recalls the awards ceremony:

In first place, we heard the name brother Štukelj, brother Vácha, and brother Löffler. The music play “God of Justice”, and our first national flag was hoisted on the highest pillar of the stadium, with two Czechoslovak flags on each side [one for Vácha and one for Löffler]. The enthusiasm and cheers of us and the Czechoslovaks stopped only as soon as the music stopped playing the anthems.

Na prvom mestu čuli smo ime br. Štuklja, br. Vache i Lefflera. Glazba je intonirala »Bože pravde«, a na najviši stup stadiona popela se prva naša državna zastava, a sa strane dve čehoslovačke. Oduševljenje i klicanje naših i Čehoislovaka prestalo je tek onda, čim je glazba prestala sa sviranjem himni.

Sokolski glasnik, 1928, number 17

The Italian newspaper La Stampa also indicated that Neri was not awarded a bronze on rings at the time:

[O]n the apparatus, our best placement was that of Neri who ranks second on high bar, while in the other specialties no Italian was ranked in the top three.

La Stampa, August 11, 1928

[A]gli attrezzi il miglior nostro piazzamento fu quello di Neri che si classifica secondo alla sbarra, mentre nelle altre specialità nessun italiano si classificava nel primi tre.

As far as I know, this mistake was never remedied, and Neri never received his rightful bronze medal.

Team Standings after Day 1

After pommel horse and rings, here were the standings:

  1. Switzerland: 844.25
  2. Czechoslovakia: 821.00
  3. Yugoslavia: 816.25
  4. Italy: 804.00
  5. France: 795.25
  6. United States: 742.50
  7. Finland: 711.50
  8. Luxembourg: 644.00
  9. Holland: 638.25
  10. Hungary: 596.75
  11. Great Britain: 579.75

Source: Sokolski Glasnik, 1928, number 17

Reminder: The teams wouldn’t know their final standings until the very end because the team score was based on the six best all-around scores — not the six best scores on each event.

Commentary about Day 1

Because of rainy weather, they had to move the first morning of competition indoors.

It’s 8 a.m.; It’s just raining down when the gymnastics competitions have started, so these are transferred to two large tents in the Olympic city. In one, two rings sets were built; in the other, there were two pommels horses, always one apparatus for compulsories and the other for optionals.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Je ráno 8 sprna; prší jen se leje, když byly zahajovány tělocvičné závody, takže tyto přeloženy do dvou velikých stanů v olympijském městě. V jednom postaveny dvoje kruhy, ve druhém stály dva koně, vždy jedno nářadí pro povinné a druhé pro volné cvičeni. 

But in the afternoon, they were able to move out of the tents, which was good because people were smoking in the tents.

In the meantime, it’s beautiful weather outside and the afternoon competitions will be out there. The atmosphere in the stuffy tents was tormenting both the sportspeople and the spectators, thanks to the numerous smokers who could not deny their dubious pleasure here either.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Mezitím se venku vyčasilo, a odpolední závody budou bohudíky venku. Atmosféra v dusných stanech byla beztak trýzní jak závodníkům, tak i divákům, díky četným kuřákům, kteří si nemohli svůj pochybný požitek ani zde odepříti.

Pommel Horse

Switzerland

TCH: Hänggi and Miez were exceptional during their optional routines on pommel horse.

Everything is still the same as it should be, beautiful and spotless. [Hänggi] received 29.75 points. After Hänggi, Miez still shone like a bright star with a simpler, but perfectly executed routine.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Končí přednožkou popředu. Vše na touž stranu, krásně a bezvadně. Dostal 29.75 bodů. Po Hänggim se ještě blýskl Miez jednodušší sice, ale bezvadně provedenou sestavou.

TCH: But Mack received a gift from the judges, and there happened to be a Swiss judge on the panel.

The last one, Mack, hesitated within the performance twice, but he still got 27 points. The Swiss judge showed his benevolence; we wonder if this will always be the case for all competitors. In total, the Swiss scored 222 points out of 240 on pommel horse.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Poslední, Mack, dvakráte hrubě přerušil, ale přes to dostal 27 bodů. Švýcarský soudce ukázal svou benevolenci; jsme zvědavi, zdali tak bude vždy a u všech borců. Úhrnem docílili Švýcaři na volném koni 222 bodů ze 240.

TCH: The Swiss performed the compulsory pommel horse routines extraordinarily.

The Swiss on pommel horse performed the compulsory routine beautifully. The high appreciation of their previous exercises gave the athletes confidence and enthusiasm. General admiration from everyone present. The Swiss scored 219 points on the compulsory side horse routine.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Švýcaři na koni na šíř cvičili povinnou sestavu nádherně. Vysoké ocenění jejich předcházejících cvičení dodalo závodníkům sebevědomí a nadšení. Všeobecný obdiv je provázel. Celkem získali Švýcaři na povinném koni 219 bodů.

Italy

TCH: The Italians learned the compulsory pommel horse routine incorrectly.

While we [Czechoslovakia] competed on the rings, the Italians, our second serious competitor, started on pommel horse. During the compulsory routines, they had practiced a small change, which they had to omit and thus were at a significant disadvantage, so the judges were very lenient in judging their relatively poor performance on pommel horse, giving them 183.25 points for the compulsory routines.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Zatím co naši závodili na kruzích, začali Italové, druhý náš vážný sok, závod na koni. Při povinné sestavě měli nacvičenou malou změnu, kterou ovšem musili vynechati a tím byli ve velké nevýhodě, proto soudcové byli při posuzování jejich celkem slabého výkonu na koni velmi shovívaví, davše jim 183.25 bodu za povinnou sestavu.

Yugoslavia

TCH: The Yugoslav gymnasts were better than the Swiss gymnasts on pommel horse.

The Yugoslavs were excellent on pommel horse except for Ciotti and Gregorka; especially Štukelj’s temperament and execution matched the best of Swiss performers. Even the Yugoslav brothers’ optionals performances were versatile and exceeded the Swiss.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Jihoslované byli na koni výborní až na Ciottiho a Gregorku; zejména Štukelj temperamentem a provedením se vyrovnal nejlepšímu Švýcaru. I volné sestavy jihoslovanských bratří byly všestranné a stály koncepcí nad švýcarskými.

YUG: The cold impacted their performances, costing them points.

According to the results on the horse, we see that the cold weather affected the performance of our routines; for example, brother Štukelj lost at least 3 points on the optional routine, similar to his brother Derganc and Porenta, who are otherwise very good on pommel horse. In the cold, they diligently lost points to our competitors.

Po rezultatima na kojnu vidimo, da je hladnoi vreme utecalo na izvodenje vežbi tako na pr. br. Štukelj gubi kod slobodne vežbe najmanje 3 tačke slično brat Derganc i Porenta, koji su inače vrlo dobri na konju. Uz hladnoču marljivo su kidali tačke našim takm ičarim.

Sokolski glasnik, 1928, number 17

Rings

France

TCH: The French coach was loud.

[The French team] was led by an old, gray Paillot, who shouted a lot within all his commands. He shouted as if he had eight thousand exercisers instead of eight. All arrivals and departures were theatrical, to the detriment of the whole look.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Vedeno bylo starým, šedivým Paillotem, který velmi namáhal své hlasivky při všech povelech. Křičel, jako by místo osmi měl osm tisíc cvičenců. Všechny příchody a odchody byly teatrální, na škodu celého vzhledu.

TCH: The French team lost a member due to an injured hand.

Their best competitor, Kraus, collapsed during the final routine and bruised his hand, so he had to give up competing the next day. In free rings, the French gained 198.25 points.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Nejlepší jejich borec, Kraus, spadl při konečném přešvihu roznožmo a pohmoždil si ruku, takže druhý den musil se vzdáti dalšího závodu. Na volných kruzích získali Francouzi 198.25 bodů.

Switzerland

TCH: The Swiss were lacking on rings and cheated some of their holds.

Although the Swiss have made significant progress since the Paris competitions, they received more than they deserved, 205.5 points, thanks to various “grimaces” when coming on the stage and leaving. This is also true here. They only went into a handstand with their rings; they did not hold as they should.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Švýcaři učinili sice od pařížských závodů veliký pokrok, ale dostali na bodech více než zasluhovali, 205.5 bodů, díky různým »opičkám« při nástupu a odchodu. I to zde platí. Výmyky do stoje o rukou vzporem dělali jen do kliku, váhy nedrželi.

Note: The reference to Paris is a reference to the 1924 Olympics in Paris.

Czechoslovakia

TCH: The outfits of the Czechoslovak team made them look like they were nervous.

Ours have a Sokol training suit with a Czechoslovak flag on their chest and white unnecessarily long sweaters that don’t suit them. In addition, the wide training pants are shaking at their feet so that when they get to the floor, they look as if everyone is shaking with fear. 

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Naši mají sokolský cvičební úbor s československou vlajkou na prsou a bílé zbytečně dlouhé sweatry, jež jim nesluší. Mimo to široké cvičební kalhoty třesou se jim na nohou, takže při nástupu k nářadí vypadají, jako by se všichni třásli strachem.

TCH: The Czechoslovak team is surprised because their best ring worker fell during the compulsory ring routine.

When [Šupčík] gets to a handstand, he suddenly falls back and jumps down. What we felt as an audience cannot be described. Brother Erben escaped from the grandstand to the training ground, he couldn’t stand it there, and we were in tears. The competitor we all relied on, who is “at home” while on the rings, starts the competition like this. Everyone is going once again, but the natural excellent, sportive mood is gone.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Začíná skvěle, nikde více švihu než třeba, kde tah tam skutečně táhne a výdrže drží jako hračku: když dospěl k výmyku do stoje o rukou, náhle přepadá zpět a seskakuje. Jak nám na tribuně bylo, nelze vylíčiti. Bratr Erben s tribuny utekl do cvičiště nemoha tam vydržeti a nám bylo do pláče. Borec, na kterého jsme všichni spoléhali, který je na kruzích »doma«, takhle vstupuje do závodu. Všichni sice jdou ještě jednou, ale pravá nálada je pryč.

TCH: Vácha was masterful on rings, garnering applause from a challenging audience.

It is no wonder that the mood of our boys was not very high when they started the optional rings. There, with the richness and difficulty of the exercises and the stunning performance, they applauded together with the audience, which was not very favorable to us. Vácha was here in his proper condition and dazzled with his performances so that we all guessed him as a champion in the discipline of rings.


Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Není divu, že nálada našich hochů byla málo povznesená, když nastupovali k volným kruhům. Tam bohatostí i obtížností cvičení, jakož i krásným provedením strhovali k potlesku i obecenstvo, jež nám bylo málo nakloněno. Vácha tu byl ve svém živlu a oslňoval svými výkony tak, že jsme ho všichni tipovali, za championa na kruzích.

The United States

TCH: The Americans brought a masseuse, which didn’t help them.

The Americans, who replaced us on rings, practiced very weakly despite all the masseur’s massages at the training ground itself. Also, a curious phenomenon!

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Američané, kteří vystřídali naše na kruzích, cvičili velmi slabě přes masáže, které na nich masér na samotném cvičišti vykonával. Také kuriósní zjev!

Yugoslavia

TCH: The Yugoslav gymnasts mastered the compulsory routine.

The compulsory routine [of Yugoslavia] was solid and beautiful as a group. It can be seen that they are very well prepared.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Povinnou sestavu zacvičili krásně. Jest viděti, že jsou připraveni velmi dobře.

Day 2

High Bar Results

GymnastCountryComp.Opt.Total
1. MiezSUI29.2528.2557.50
2. NeriITA28.2528.7557.00
3. MackSUI28.7528.0056.75
4T. LucchettiITA28.0028.5056.50
4T. HänggiSUI28.0028.5056.50
6. PrimožičYUG28.5027.5056.00

Parallel Bars Results

GymnastCountryComp.Opt.Total
1. VáchaTCH28.2528.2556.50
2. PrimožičYUG28.7526.7555.50
3. HänggiSUI26.2528.0054.25
4T. GajdošTCH27.2526.5053.75
4T. ŠupčíkTCH27.0026.7553.75
4T. LemoineFRA27.2526.5053.75

Team Standings after Day 2

After four events, here were the standings:

  1. Switzerland: 1702.00
  2. Czechoslovakia: 1662.25
  3. Yugoslavia: 1593.25
  4. Italy: 1584.50
  5. France: 1498.25
  6. Finland: 1492.50
  7. The United States: 1476.00
  8. Luxembourg: 1273.50
  9. Holland: 1241.50
  10. Hungary: 1139.50
  11. Great Britain: 1124.00

Source: Sokolski glasnik, 1928, number 17

Reminder: The teams wouldn’t know their final standings until the very end because the team score was based on the six best all-around scores — not the six best scores on each event.

YUG: The Yugoslav team was happy with the first day’s performance and were worried about how the French and Italian teams would do on day 2.

We were satisfied with the result of the first day, although on the second day they had a difficult task ahead of them — high bar and parallel bars  — that is, apparatus on which the Italians and the French are very good.

Sokolski glasnik, 1928, number 17

S rezultatom prvoga dana bili su naši zadovoljni, premda ih jc drugi dan čekala teška zadača — preča i ruče — dakle sprave na kojim a su Talijani i Francuzi vrlo dobri.

TCH: The Czechoslovak team was exhausted at the end of the second day.

So we finished the second day of the competition with a difference of 38 points. We have all given up hope. The nervous system, stretched for two days to rupture any second, did not allow other brighter thoughts. If only this significant difference were deserved!

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Zakončili jsme tedy druhý den závodů s rozdílem 38 bodů. Všichni jsme se již vzdávali naděje. Nervová soustava napínaná po dva dny k prasknutí nedovolila jiné světlejší myšlenky. Kdyby alespoň tato velká diference byla zasloužená!

Commentary about Day 2

High Bar

Switzerland

TCH: According to the Czechoslovaks, the Swiss team was lucky because they started with their optional routines.

The Swiss showed their optional routines on the horizontal bar and set the mood. They had the advantage over us in that they started with optional exercises on both pommel horse and the horizontal bar. It is something else to start with your preferences versus starting with a given set.  

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Švýcaři ukazovali na hrazdě své volné cviky a dělali pro sebe náladu. Byli proti našim ve výhodě v tom, že jak na koni, tak na hrazdě začínali volnými cviky. Je něco jiného začíti svými koníčky a začíti sestavou danou. 

TCH: The Swiss performed with fire in their bellies and were exceptional on high bar.

The Swiss performance was excellent. The sets were chosen to apply all the elegance that a horizontal bar exercise can show, the same swing, little strength and even less effort. […] The Swiss performed with fire in their bellies. White training clothes gave them snakish flexibility and elegance, especially during the challenging parts of the performance.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Cvičení Švýcarů bylo skvělé. Sestavy byly voleny tak, aby se uplatnila veškerá elegance, jíž je s to cvičení na hrazdě ukázati, samý švih, málo tahu a ještě méně vydrží. […] Švýcaři cvičili s ohněm. Bílé cvičební úbory dodávaly jim zejména při veletočích, hadovité pružnosti a elegance. 

Czechoslovakia

TCH: Löffler and Gajdoš fell on the same skill because they felt like they were getting rips.

Here Löffler and Gajdoš got us into trouble; when the performance was first performed, they suddenly fell in the same place in the middle of the performance. We were all shaking, not knowing why the boys did it. Later in the evening, they said they felt like their calluses were cracking. Vácha and Effenberger were also the best in the second round. 

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Zde nám připravili horkou chvíli Löffler a Gajdoš; při prvním provedení sestavy najednou uprostřed sestavy v témž místě seskočili. Všichni jsme se třásli, nevědouce, proč to chlapci provedli. Prý měli pocit, jakoby jim praskaly mozoly, večer říkali.

TCH: The Czechoslovak gymnasts showed originality while the Swiss kept it simple.

Our optional performance on horizontal bar was equal to the Swiss optional horizontal bar. Ours were much better when it comes to originality compared to Swiss. The Swiss, in turn, were better at performing pretty simple exercises. Again, the judges did not appreciate the composition of the exercise here. This circumstance may have led some competitors to deviate from their original sets, omitting some elements to their detriment.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Volná hrazda našich rovnala se volné hrazdě švýcarské. Co do originality sestav naši Švýcary předčili. Švýcaři zase byli lepší v provádění celkem jednoduchých cvičení. Zase soudci zde neoceňovali skladbu cvičení. Tato okolnost snad svedla některé naše borce, že se uchýlili od svých původních sestav, vynechavše ke své škodě některé prvky.

TCH: Effenberger’s routine wasn’t evaluated correctly because the judges didn’t want him to win.

Although Effenberger performed the best of the entire team, he only scored 26.75 points because he threatened someone else’s title on horizontal bar. The Swiss themselves were amazed in the grandstands, as well.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Ač Effenberger cvičil z celého družstva nejlépe, dostal jen 26.75 bodu, neboť ohrožoval něčí championát na hrazdě. I sami Švýcaři na tribuně se divili.

Note: The implication is that the Swiss judge (Lerch) wouldn’t let a Czechoslovak gymnast win. Swiss gymnast Miez won the Olympic title on high bar.

Yugoslavia

TCH: Štukejl was the only strong Yugoslav gymnast on high bar.

High bar was relatively weak among the Yugoslavs; only Štukejl shone on horizontal bar with his performance. The Italians took third place when performing on the horizontal bar, but they lost this position against the Yugoslavs when performing on the parallel bars. 

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Hrazda byla u Jihoslovanů dosti slabá, jediný Štukejl se zaskvěl na hrazdě svými výkony. Italové se cvičením na hrazdě dostali na třetí místo, ale cvičením na bradlech ztratili proti Jihoslovanům toto umístění.

YUG: The Yugoslavs agreed that high bar was rough, but they thought that Primožič was the strongest.

We had a weak day on the high bar, so it was the apparatus where they got the fewest points; the judges are to blame, who underestimated the perfectly performed exercises. Primožič would have to win the championship in the opinion of everyone, and the judges gave him, out of a full 30 points, only 28.50 for the compulsory routine and 27.50 for the optional routine.

Sokolski glasnik, 1928, number 17

Naši su imali slab dan na preči, tako da je to sprava na kojoj su dobili najmanje tačaka; krivi su sudije, koji su prenisko ocenjivali savršeno izvedene vežbe. Br. Primožič bio bi morao po mišljenju sviju dobiti šampijonat na preči, a sudije su mu dali m esto punih 30 tačaka samo 28,50 za obaveznu i 27,50 za slobodnu vežbu.

Parallel Bars

France

TCH: Kraus had to pull out due to an injured hand, which had a big impact on the team.

The French started with compulsory parallel bars. They competed with only 7 competitors. Mental depression was quite visible. The performance sets did not work for them, and, to us, they already looked like they had thrown in the towel. We feel bad for this national team, as it was always the French who, with their maturity, rewarded every competition with an internationally high standard. They received only 158.85 points on compulsory parallel bars overall for 7 competitors.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Francouzi začínali povinnými bradly. Nastoupili pouze se 7 závodníky. Bylo na nich viděti duševní depresi. Cvičení se jim nedařila, a pro nás vypadali již z kalkulace. Litovali jsme toto národní družstvo, neboť to byli vždy Francouzi, kteří svou vyspělostí dodávali každému závodu mezinárodnímu vysoké úrovně. Dostali na povinných bradlech při 7 cvičencích pouze 158.85 bodů.

Switzerland

TCH: Switzerland was weak on compulsory parallel bars but still got good scores.

The Swiss on the compulsory parallel bars were relatively weak. […] However, the judges (Yugoslav Vidmar, Hungarian Füzsfás, and Czechoslovak Bílek) punished them by deducting points, but not to the same extent as the judges punished us the day before on pommel horse.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Švýcaři na povinných bradlech byli dosti slabí. […] Za to ovšem byli soudci (Jihoslovan Vidmar, Maďar Füzsfás a Čechoslovák Bílek) trestání ztrátou bodů, ale ani v nejmenším v té míře, jako den před tím, naši na koni.

TCH: Huguenin oversaw the judging, presumably because there was a Czechoslovak judge on the jury.

The scoring took place under the patronage of the captain Mr. Huguenin, for whom the [Swiss] team leader ran over in the middle of the competition so that he could supervise the judge and his activity, perhaps.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Bodování se dělo za patronance vrchníka pana Huguenina, pro kterého si vedoucí družstva mezi závodem sám doběhl, aby na soudce snad dohlížel. 

Note: The scores were rather even for the Swiss gymnasts on compulsory parallel bars, even though there was a Czechoslovak judge on the jury.

  • Grieder: 9.0, 9.0, 9.0
  • Wezel: 8.75, 9.25, 8.5
  • Güttinger: 8.5, 8.75, 8.0
  • Hänggi: 8.75, 9.0, 8.5
  • Steinemann: 8.5, 8.5, 8.5
  • Miez: 8.75, 8.5, 8.5
  • Pfister: 8.0, 7.75, 7.75
  • Mack: 7.5, 8.0, 7.5

SUI: The Swiss team was underscored on their optional routines.

Our guys didn’t have their best day in the obligatory parallel bars routine. With the optional routines, where only Miez didn’t get up to speed, the performances were excellent. But the assessment by the jury was so peculiar that only relatively mediocre scores could be achieved. Hänggi and Mack offered top performances that deserved almost exactly the maximum mark, but the judges wrote them off two points, which nobody here understood.

Der Bund, August 10, 1928

Unsere Leute hatten in der obligatorischen Barrenübung nicht ihren besten Tag. Mit der freigewählten Hebung, wo nur Miez nicht voll auf die Höhe kam, gelangen dann die Leistungen vortrefflich. Aber die Beurteilung durch das Schiedsgericht war so eigenartig, daß trotzdem nur verhältnismäßig mittelmäßige Noten erzielt werden konnten. Hänggi und Mack boten Spitzenleistungen, die fast genau die Maximalnote verdient hätten, aber das Kampfgericht schrieb ihnen zwei Punkte ab, was hier von niemand verstanden wurde. 

Czechoslovakia

TCH: The gymnasts need to stop stretching and then bending over to chalk their hands.

Koutný goes first. This shows the ugly way for the sportsman to dry his hands and unnecessarily stretch out before grabbing the apparatus. Such snagging with a lunge to the side and a forward bend to take the magnesium in his hand, spreading and only then grabbing the apparatus, erases the power of being natural for the competitor. As each of our competitors did this, it was apparent that it was ordered. No matter what happens, we condemn this proclamation as unnatural. The competitor wipes his hands and walks briskly (without an “abtajligmarsh”) to the apparatus, grabs, and performs. He performs, jumps down, and leaves as briskly as he comes. So it’s natural and straightforward!

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

První jde Koutný. Zde nám padl do očí nepěkný způsob, jak se cvičenec staví k utírání rukou a zbytečné rozpažení před uchopením nářadí. Takové tajtrlíkování s výpadem stranou a předklonem, aby cvičenec mohl vzíti do ruky magnesium, rozpažení a teprve předpažení, aby uchopil nářadí, stírá se cvičení pel přirozenosti. Ježto si takto počínal každý náš cvičenec, bylo zřejmo, že to bylo nařízeno. Ať se tak stalo kýmkoliv, odsuzujeme toto tajtrlíkování jako nepřirozené. Cvičenec si prostě utře ruce, dojde svižným krokem (bez »abtajligmarše«) k nářadí, uchopí a naskočí. Odcvičí, seskočí a odejde tak, jak přišel, svižně. Tak je to prosté a přirozené!

TCH: The Czechoslovak team had to repeat their compulsories.

The best is Vácha. Everything without a single hesitation. All of them, except Vácha, are taking repeating rounds, and there, even those who failed the exercise for the first time, improved significantly, especially Koutný and Tikal.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Nejskvělejší je Vácha. Vše úplně bez chyby. Všichni si kromě Váchy berou opravu, a tam se i ti, kterým se cvičení poprvé nepovedlo, velmi zlepšili, zejména Koutný a Tikal.

TCH: The Czechoslovak optional routines were original and poorly evaluated.

Our gymnasts showed top performances during their optional routines on parallel bars. Every set was original, but the judges don’t understand this and so we leave the discipline of optional parallel bars pretty poorly.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Na bradlech volných naši ukázali vpravdě vrcholný výcvik. Co sestava, to originalita, ale páni soudci pro tuto nemají porozumění a tak naši odcházejí od volných bradel obdarováni dost chudě.

SUI: The Czechoslovak team was overscored.

On the other hand, the judges’ judges went about their work with the Czechoslovaks much more cautiously. The Czechoslovaks received many points, some of which did not even belong to them, and thus worked out a lead of 7 1/2 points over the Swiss on parallel bars.

Der Bund, August 10, 1928

Dafür ging das Kampfgericht bei den Tschechoslowaken bedeutend vorsichtiger zu Werke. Die Tschechoslowaken heimsten viele Punkte ein, die ihnen zum Teil gar nicht gehörten und arbeiteten so am Barren einen Vorsprung von 7 1/2 Punkten gegenüber den Schweizern heraus. 

Yugoslavia

YUG: Had it not been for a bounce, Primožič may have received a perfect 30.

Brother Primožič gets 28.75 for compulsory and 26.75 for free. He had a small accident here, if he had bounced at the end of his exercise, he would have gained a full 30 points.

Sokolski glasnik, 1928, number 17
Brat Primožič dobiva 28.75 za obaveznu, a 26.75 za slobodnu. Ovde je imao malu nezgodu, da je odskočio na svršetku svoje vežbe bio bi dobio punih 30 tačaka

Day 3

Scores for the Ensemble Routines

CountryScore
Czechoslovakia286.50
Finland273.75
Switzerland264.75
Yugoslavia261.75
Holland251.25
France249.00
United States249.00
Hungary233.25
Italy230.25
Luxembourg222.75
Great Britain209.00

Vault Results

GymnastCountryComp.Opt.Average
1. MackSUI30.0027.5028.75
2. LöfflerTCH28.2528.7528.50
3. DergancYUG28.2528.5028.375
4T. PrimožičYUG27.7528.7528.25
4T. MiezSUI29.7526.7528.25
6. LerouxFRA29.0027.0028.00
Note: The official report does not include compulsory and optional scores. Those scores are from Štukelj’s Mojih sedem svetovnih tekmovanj. Thanks to Hardy Fink for supplying them.

Final Team Standings

CountryPommelRingsHigh BarP-BarsVaultEnsembleTotal
1. Switzerland337.50307.25334.00309.75165.375264.751,718.625
2. Czechoslovakia305.00326.50321.75319.00153.50286.501,712.25
3. Yugoslavia305.00319.50294.25306.50161.75261.751,648.75
4. France307.50297.00315.25296.50155.50249.001,620.75
5. Finland265.50303.00324.50286.50156.00273.751,609.25
6. Italy299.25309.25329.00292.25139.125230.251,599.125
7. United States286.50268.00284.00276.50155.125249.001,519.125
8. Holland244.25250.50251.25288.50138.625251.251,364.875
9. Luxembourg241.00269.75251.25234.50141.75222.751,361.00
10. Hungary231.75261.75241.25231.00145.75233.251,344.75
11. Great Britain216.75220.25251.50180.00127.50209.001,205.00

Final All-Around Standings

GymnastCountryPH – CPH – OSR – CSR – OHB – CHB – OPB – CPB – OVTTotal
1. MiezSUI28.5029.2527.0027.2529.2528.2525.7524.0028.25247.50
2. HänggiSUI29.5029.7524.7524.7528.0028.5026.2528.0027.125246.625
3. ŠtukeljYUG28.0025.2529.0028.7527.0026.7526.0027.5026.625244.875
4. NeriITA24.5027.0028.2527.7528.2528.7527.0026.0027.25244.75
5. PrimožičYUG24.2527.5026.7525.7528.5027.5028.7526.7528.25244.00
6T. NybergFIN26.7527.7526.7528.2528.2525.7526.5027.0026.75243.75
6T. SavolainenFIN28.7527.7527.5026.2528.0026.5025.0026.7527.25243.75
8. MackSUI27.2527.0026.2526.2528.7528.0023.0028.0028.75243.25
9. VáchaTCH20.0027.0028.0029.5026.7528.0028.2528.2527.125242.875
10. LöfflerTCH25.7526.2527.2528.2527.2526.7526.5026.0028.50242.50
11. SolbachFRA25.2527.7527.252727.2528.2527.2525.7525.875241.625
12. WezelSUI27.5027.0026.7525.0025.7528.0026.5027.0027.375240.875
13. GajdošTCH26.2527.7525.5028.7524.0027.2527.2526.5027.375240.625
14. EffenbergerTCH28.5025.5025.0027.0028.7526.7526.0026.2525.125238.875
15. SteinemannSUI27.7528.2526.0024.7528.2525.5025.5025.7526.125237.875

Commentary about Day 3

The Change in Competition Order

TCH: The competition order changed.

It was supposed to go according to the scheduled program, as happened in previous days, i.e., the Dutch first and America last. But this one was suddenly changed by a lottery show (by whom?) so that the Swiss went as the last ones.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Mělo se jíti podle vylosovaného pořadu, jak se dělo v předcházejících dnech, tedy Holanďané první a Amerika poslední. Ale tento u najednou byl vylosovaný pořad samovolně změněn (kým?) tak, že Švýcaři šli naposled.

TCH: The Czechoslovak team thought that the new order was done on purpose.

However, the Swiss had everything insured for themselves, right? The fact that they were the last on the list provided them with an orientation on how much they still needed to reach their competitors, and the change of judges was also good for them, as the Hungarian and the Dutch made sure that serious competitors did not score high.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Tak ovšem měli pání Švýcaři pro sebe vše pojištěno. Že byli v pořadí posledními, jim umožnilo orientaci, kolik na své soupeře ještě potřebují a přeměna soudců jim také nebyla ke škodě, neboť Maďar s Holanďanem se postarali, aby se vážní konkurenti nevyšvihli na prostných vysoko.

Note: According to the rules, there should not be a last-minute change to the order of the competitors:

L’ordre des sections concurrentes sera indiqué par le tirage au sort.

Ensemble Routines

Yugoslavia

YUG: Yugoslavia told the story of their nation through their routine.

One of those was which was performed accompanied by piano. Lipovsek was playing. The whole stadium fell silent, the competition stopped. Everything was tense and watched in awe. We performed the composition of the director of JSS V. Murnik, so called “Yugoslav Gymnastic Epopeia” which includes and his previous exercise compositions into a logical and aesthetic whole.

We shall digress here and cite the thoughts of Mr. E. Gailliez on the performance of our simple exercise. He wrote in the  La Flandre liberale on  the 12th of August, 1928 the following:

“At the contest with gymnastic equipment, the Czechs took part and they performed very hard and complex preliminary exercises. After them, the Yugoslavs went on the stage performing simple exercises, which were the most beautiful that we saw in our life.

The movements and stances stood for the main moments from the history of South Slavs and freedom in the olden days, the freedom is threatened from all sides ( the song of freedom and equality of all peoples, “La Marseillaise,” sounds off) the fight for protecting the freedom  ( “To arms!”), victory of the enemy ( “Turkish Mehter March”), cultural development of South Slavs  by Western cultural influx (“Faust”, “Carmen”), the Balkan uprising for freedom, world war ( “To arms!”), unification ( “Boze pravde”), “Forward.”

The movements represent the  prayers, threats, anger, joy, enthusiasm, in their order enchant and overwhelm all those who are not insensitive to beauty, kindness and love.”

Sokolski glasnik, 1928, number 19

Jedina vrsta su, koja nastupa uz pratnju glasovira. Svirao je br. Lipovšek. Na stadionu sve je ušutilo, utakmica se zaustavila. Sve je napeto i zadivljeno gledalo. Naša vrsta izvela je kompoziciju br. Načelnika JSS dr. V. Murnika, t. zv. »Jugoslovensku telovežbačku epopeju«, koja sadržava i u logičku i estetsku celinu spaja poznate več njegove ranije telovežbačke kompozicije.

Ovde čemo načiniti malen skok s predmeta i citirati mnjenje gospodina E. Gaillieza o izvedbi naše proste vežbe. On piše u listu »La Flandre liberale« u broju od 12 augusta 1928 sledeče:

»Po utakmici na spravama, nastupili su Češi s lepim, vrlo teščim i komplieiranim prostim vežbama. Iza njih nastupili »u s prostim vežbama Jugosloveni, eije su bile najlepše, koje smo videli u našem životu.

Pokreti i izdržaji predstavljaju najglavnije momente iz istorije južnih Slovena i slobodan život u davnoj prošlosti; sloboda je ugrožavana sa sviju stiana, (svira se pesma slobodc i ravnopravnosti sviju naroda »La Marseillaise«) borba za o čuvan je slobode (»U boj!«), pobedai neprijatclja (»Turska koračnica«) kulturni razvitaik južnih Slovena pod uplivom zapada (»Faust«, »Carmen«), balkanske bonbe za oslobodcnje, svetski rat (»U boj!«), tijedinjenjc (»Bože pravde«), »Naprej!«

Pokreti predstalijajuči molitve, grožnje, srdžbu, veselje, entuziazam, u svorn redosledu očaravajiu i preuzčmlju sve one, koji nisu besčutni za lepotu, dobrotu i ljubav.«

Note: “Bože pravde” is the current national anthem of Serbia, and “La Marseillaise” is the national anthem of France.

TCH: The Czechoslovak team didn’t fully understand the story.

The Yugoslavs succeeded them. The calisthenics itself was compiled by team leader Dr. Murnik and brother Vildmar, who accompanied the performance by playing the piano. The exercise was beautiful; it captured the idea well. The music was a mix of La Marseillaise, the opera “Nicholas of Zrinsky”, Beethoven (Turkish March), Gounod (Waltz of Faust), Bizet’s Carmen, finishing again with “U boj” from Zrinsky. The Yugoslavs practiced fiery and were awarded the well-deserved applause and the highest mark, 261.75 points. This puts Yugoslavia 40 points ahead of the Italians.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Po nich nastoupili Jihoslované, Jejich prostná byla podle vydaného rozboru podložena ideově a vyjadřovala jihoslovanskou epopej. Cvičení samo bylo sestaveno vůdcem družstva Drem Murnikem a hudbu brem Vildmarem, jenž sám doprovázel cvičení hrou na pianě. Cvičení bylo krásné, ideu dobře zachytilo. Hudba byla směs z Marseilaisy, z opery »Mikuláš Zrinský«, Beethovena (Turecký pochod), z Gounoda (valčík z Fausta), z Bizetovy Carmen, zakončení opět z »U boj« ze Zrinského. Jihoslované cvičili ohnivě a sklidili zasloužený potlesk a nejvšší dosud známku 261.75 bodu. Tím se dostávají Jihoslované 40 body před Italy.

Hungary

TCH: The Hungarians were meh.

The Hungarians practice systematic calisthenics without any particular liveliness. They got 233.25 points.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Maďaři cvičí systematická prostná, celkem bez zvláštního temperamentu. Odnášejí si 233.25 bodu.

Czechoslovakia

TCH: The Czechoslovakia team was supposed to use music, but they abandoned it at the last minute because of the judges’ meeting.

[The Hungarians] are followed by our 8 bronze-tanned, solid and muscular competitors. They are exercising to our surprise without music; in the morning, they had a rehearsal with music: Music was alleged to facilitate the exercises at the judges’ meeting.  

Sokol, 1928, Number 1

Po nich jdou naši, 8 bronzově opálených, rozložitých postav. Cvičí k našemu podivení bez hudby, ráno, měli zkoušku s hudbou: Ve schůzi soudců prý bylo prohlašováno, že prý hudba cvičení usnadňuje.

TCH: The Czechoslovak team, in their view, had a fantastic routine.

Here the team has to make up for the loss of points with the Swiss and then overtake them during vault. The competitors were aware of this as well. None of the competitors were ever mistaken, their attitudes solid in the ground (if only those disgusting wide pants weren’t there!), temperamentally and geometrically accurate. After the change of shapes, their exercises were beautifully outlined in the space. Calisthenics contained 6 divisions with entry, transformations, exits, and reunions and lasted 11 minutes and 28 seconds. 

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Zde musí družstvo vyrovnat ztráty bodů se Švýcary a potom při skocích předběhnouti. Toho si byli vědomi i borci, Cvičili velmi obtížná prostná, v nichž je jedna těžká poloha za druhou, tak, že jsme je my, kteří jsme sledovali nácvik, ani jednou neviděli tak krásně cvičiti. Nikdo z borců se ani jednou nespletl, postoje jako obodnuté do země (jen kdyby těch ohavných širokých kalhot nebylo!), temperamentně a geometricky přesně. Po změně útvarů se cvičení v nich prováděná krásně rýsovala do prostoru. Prostná obsahovala 6 oddílů se vstupem, přeměnami a odchodem a srazem vřad a trvala 11 minut 28 vteřin.

Note: The judges agreed, giving the Czechoslovak team the highest score for their ensemble routine.

TCH: The Czechoslovak team’s score was potentially changed at the last minute.

The entire exercise was awarded 286.50 points after a correction; previously shown on board 292.50 points. Why? Perhaps there was an error in the counting.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Celé cvičení bylo oceněno 286.50 bodu po opravě; dříve ukázáno na tabuli 292.50 bodu. Proč? Snad byla chyba v součtu.

SUI: According to the Swiss press, the Swiss were better, but the Czechoslovak team did have some good points.

In terms of gymnastics, the exercises of our people far surpassed those of the Czechs. On the other hand, it must be admitted that the Czechs worked together extremely precisely and demonstrated exercises that were pleasant to the eye.

Der Bund, August 11, 1928

An turnerischem Wert übertrafen die Uebungen unserer Leute diejenigen der Tschechen bei weitem. Dagegen muß zugegeben werden, daß die Tschechen außerordentlich exakt zusammenarbeiteten und fürs Auge schöne Uebungen demonstrierten.

The United States

TCH: The Americans were not good.

The Americans practiced the calisthenics in our way; the hustle and bustle was a slow trot in the old way with clenched fists, which surprised us with sporty Americans; the march was hard; they completely ruined the end. They got for calisthenics 249 points, although they did not deserve so much.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Američané cvičili prostná po našem způsobu, ruch byl mrtvý poklus po starém způsobu se zaťatými pěsťmi, což nás u sportovních Američanů překvapilo, pochod tvrdý, konec úplně zkazili. Dostali za prostná 249 bodů, ač tolik nezasluhovali.

Finland

TCH: The Finnish team had the best routine.

The Finns followed them. That was the most beautiful exercise of the day in our judgment. They introduced themselves as a beautifully mature team of equally impressive builds. The excellent impression that the team made was supported with white exercise clothing. The performance was soft and flexible, the composition of the exercises was straightforward, considering not only the versatile exercise of the body but also the aesthetic side of the exercise. The activity was alternating. 273.75 points were too little for them to get.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Po nich následovali Finové. To bylo po našem soudu nejkrásnější cvičení toho dne. Představili se nám jako nádherně vzrostlé družstvo stejně velkých postav. Skvostný dojem, který družstvo činilo byl zvýšen bílým cvičebním úborem. Pochod jejich měkký a pružný, skladba cvičení pořadových a prostých nádherná, přihlížející nejen k všestrannému procvičení těla, ale i k estetické stránce cvičení. Ruch byl střídavý. Při klonech volnější, než při pohybech Končetin pohyby těchto rychlé, ale netrhavé. 273.75 bodu bylo málo, co dostali.

France

TCH: The French included elements of wrestling and boxing.

After a short start, the French started performance from the head and switched to arms, legs and torso. According to Hebert and Demeny, it was a systematic exercise diversified by athletic elements of wrestling and boxing. It was a scientific health education lesson, lifeless, well-executed, and was awarded 249 points.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Francouzi po krátkém nástupu začali od cvičení hlavy a přešli na paže, nohy a trup. Bylo to systematické cvičení podle Heberta a Demenyho, zpestřené atletickými prvky zápasu a boxu. Byl to tělocvik vědecký, a nezáživný, slušně prováděný, a odměněn byl 249 body.

Switzerland

TCH: The Swiss were overscored, and people were disgusted.

We were all waiting for the award to be given to the Swiss. We knew there wouldn’t be much, and behold, 264.75 points! The surprise appeared on all faces. In our tribune, some foreign journalists, who are certainly used to whatever, relieved themselves by calling “yuck.” Sir Huguenin’s change of judges has worked! However, we are leading ahead of the Swiss at the moment.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Všichni jme čekali, jakého ocenění se Švýcarům dostane. Věděli jsme, že toho mnoho nebude a hle, 264.75 bodu! Všeobecné překvapení se objevilo na všech tvářích. Na naši tribuně někteří cizí žurnalisté, lidé to, kteří jsou jistě lečemus zvyklí, si ulevili voláním »fuj«. Přeřadění soudců paně Hugueninovo se osvědčilo! Naši však přece v této chvíli vedou před Švýcary.

YUG: The Yugoslavs agreed that the Swiss were overscored.

The Swiss get an undeserved score for inconsistent and not very well performed ensemble exercises; they achieved 264.75. They were the last to perform only so that the championship could be more easily constructed by the judges. The audience was stunned by the strong bias of the judges and protested most energetically, especially the journalists were indignant. Protests and complaints fell, but nothing helped.

Sokolski glasnik, 1928, number 19

Švajcari dobivaju nezasluženu ocenu za neskladne i ne baš osobito lepo izvedene proste vežbe, postigli su 264.75. Nastupili su poslednji samo zato, da se im je moglo sa strane sudija lakše skonstruisati prvenstvo. Publiku je zapanjila silna pristranost sudija te je najenergičnije protestirala, naročito ogorčeni bili su novinari. Padali su protesti i pritužbe, ali sve tonije ništa pomoglo.

Vault

Switzerland

TCH: According to the Czechoslovaks, the Swiss were overscored on vault.

On the side horse vault, the judges were ashamed to show their marks in public on a blackboard; it is said that the board could not be turned at them, although there were still three available at the training ground. Although we performed the same flip as the Swiss, they got our 107.25 points against 115.25 Swiss. The Swiss judge “proved” well on the side horse. Neither of the Swiss got under 14 points (out of 15 possible), although two had a shrug of the arm when starting.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Na koni na šíř se patrně páni soudcové styděli své známky ukazovati veřejně na tabuli; prý se zrovna u nich tabule nedala otáčet, ač na cvičišti byly ještě tři k disposici. Ač naši měli stejné provedení přemetu se Švýcary, dostali naši 107.25 bodu proti 115.25 bodu švýcarským. Dobře se na koni na šiř »osvědčil« švýcarský soudce. Ani jeden ze Švýcarů nedostal pod 14 bodů (z 15 možných), ač dva měli při náskoku pokrčení paže.

Reminder: In the men’s competition, the gymnasts competed a compulsory vault on the side horse and an optional vault on the long horse.

SUI: Mack received three 10s on his compulsory vault.

But our gymnasts surpassed themselves and showed one magnificent vault after the other. Mack even managed to soften the judges enough to give him the maximum mark in the obligatory exercise.

Der Bund, August 11, 1928

Unsere Turner wuchsen aber über sich selbst hinaus und zeigten einen Prachtssprung nach dem andern. Mack gelang es sogar, das Kampfgericht soweit zu erweichen, daß es ihm die Maximalnote in der obligatorischen Uebung gab.

Reminder: Vault was judged out of 30 points because it was the average of the compulsory and optional vaults. Every other event was out of 60 points because it was the sum of the compulsory and optional routines. More on the rules here.

SUI: To celebrate, Mack jumped over eight men.

After the exercises, Mack from Basel gave a special performance by jumping over eight men in one last vault.

Der Bund, August 11, 1928

Nach den Uebungen brachte der Basler Mack noch eine Spezialvorführung, indem er mit einem letzten Sprung über acht Mann hinwegsprang.

Czechoslovakia

TCH: The Yugoslav judge tried to help out his fellow Slavs.

Yugoslav brother Šumi, was moderate in the judging, he tried to improve our score and correct the wrongs committed elsewhere towards our team, but the Italian and the Englishman would not allow him.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Jihoslovan br. Šumi byl při soudcování mírný, snažil se našim i známku zlepšiti, aby napravil křivdy jinde na našem družstvu spáchané, ale Ital s Angličanem nepovolí a tak dostávají naši tyto známky.

Note: Šumi did judge the Swiss gymnasts lower than his fellow judges. The third score in each list is Šumi’s score.

  • Mack 10, 9.5, 8.0
  • Miez 9.75, 9.5, 7.5
  • Steinemann 9.0, 8.0, 6.0
  • Wezel 9.5, 9.25, 7.0
  • Güttinger 9.75, 9.5, 7.75
  • Pfister 9.5, 9,0, 7.5
  • Grieder 9.5, 9.5, 7.5
  • Hänggi 9.5, 9.0, 7.5

(Source: Leon Štukelj, Mojih sedem svetovnih tekmovanj

My thought bubble: Either Šumi was a very honest judge or a very dishonest judge. It’s impossible to tell.

TCH: Šupčík fell on his optional vault, ending Czechoslovakia’s chances of winning.

Šupčík went last, wanting to do a side flip, he made a failed attempt. Our hearts stopped. There are no repeat turns on this discipline! Šupčík gets 5.50 points. The victory we already had in our hands a moment ago is almost buried by this failed jump of the best sportsman. Our nerves have been stretched since the first entry into Dutch land, severely tested during the event days. As it must have been for Šupčík himself, who had been preparing so diligently all year. And what we felt, it is difficult to describe.

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Poslední šel Šupčík. chtě provésti přemet stranou provede nepodařený výšvih zánožmo a seskakuje. V nás ztuhla krev. Opravy na tomto nářadí nejsou! Šupčík dostává 5.50 bodu. Vítězství, jež jsme již již měli v ruce, tímto nepodařeným skokem nejlepšího cvičence jest takřka pohřbeno. Nervy napínavé od prvního vstupu na holandskou půdu, těžce zkoušené za dnů závodních povolily. Jak muselo býti samotnému Šupčíkovi, který se celý rok tak svědomitě připravoval. A jak bylo nám, těžko vylíčiti.

Judging Protests

TCH: The Czechoslovak team blamed the judges for their loss. In their opinion, had they been judged fairly, Šupčík’s mistake wouldn’t have mattered.

Our mood was down. After all the unjust and, let’s say, few honest machinations, the Swiss team wins only by a slight difference. What would have been the superiority of ours if it had been judged relatively! Then even Šupčík’s accident would not be decisive. But futile recriminations! 

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Náše nálada byla hrozně stísněná. Po všech nespravedlivých a řekněme přímo málo čestných machinacích vítězí švýcarské družstvo jen o malý rozdíl. Jaká by byla musela býti převaha našich, kdyby se bylo spravedlivě soudcovalo! Pak by ani nehoda Šupčíkova byla nerozhodovala. Ale marné rekriminace!

TCH: The Czechoslovak team lodged a protest.

The team’s leadership decided to file a protest against the high appreciation of the Swiss public, which was, however, rejected. 

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Vedení výpravy se rozhodlo podati protest proti vysokému ocenění švýcarských prostných který ovšem byl zamítnut.

TCH: However, not everyone agreed that they should have protested another team’s scores.

The protest was practically unsustainable and only morally damaged us because it was fair to protest against the unjust evaluation of our exercise, but to protest against the mark of the other team is rather delicate. Swiss were not satisfied with the event either, and in their magazines, they blame many disciplines and judges, but for one thing, they forget that judge, Yugoslav Šumi was a forced one – he decided to put Mr. Huguenin in the last rounds that decided the victory, to the right place – exactly where he belonged when he wanted to get involved in judging. 

Sokol, 1928, Number 11

Prakticky byl protest neudržitelný a morálně nás jenom poškodil, neboť spravedlivé bylo, protestovati proti nespravedlivému ocenění našeho cvičení, ale protestovati proti známce cizí jest choulostivé, Švýcaři jako závodníci jsou skvělí soupeři, na nářadí rozhodně lepší, ovšem v prostných a v tělocviku prostém jsou slabší. Ani oni nebyli se závody spokojeni a ve svých časopisech vytýkají závodům i soudcům mnoho, ale na jedno zapomínají, že soudce Jihoslovan Šumi byl nucen soudce-vrchníka p. Huguenina při posledních skocích, jež rozhodly o vítězství, odkázati do patřičných mezi, když se zde chtěl plésti do soudcování. 

YUG: The Yugoslav team thought that they were judged unfairly but didn’t file a protest.

That last day is also significant because the machinations of some members of the jury proved to be the most obvious. Italians, Swiss and Czechoslovaks protested against that – and our leadership, although hard hit by the inappropriate strictness of the judges, did not protest, because they did not want to spoil the impression and high decor of the Olympic competitions.

Sokolski glasnik, 1928, number 19

Taj poslednji dan značajaje i po torne što su se mahinacije nekih članova žirija pokazale najočiglednije. Protiiv toga protestirali su Talijani, Švieari i Čehoslovaci — a vodstvo naše vrste, iako teško pogodeno, neumesnom strogoščlu sudija, ni je protestiralo, jer ni je htelo kvariti utisak i visok dekor olimpijskih takmičenja.

In summary, there’s never a dull moment in men’s gymnastics.

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